December 18, 2019
A long-standing assumption at the heart of synagogue Hebrew education is that if our children learned to read English, it should not be that hard for them to learn to read Hebrew fluently. Yet, even with four years or more of “Hebrew school,” young learners struggle with prayers and blessings. The culprit is often identified as lessened days/hours of learning time or competing family priorities. But, consistent and well-replicated reading research offers us another possibility – countless studies conclude that reading fluency is “… a by-product of having instant access to most or all of the words on the page.”
Stop and consider your own experience with English as you read the words in this article – you are not decoding letter-vowel-letter-vowel-letter, but rather are instantly and accurately reading each word with understanding. You could do so even if you saw words out of context. For the most part, your fluent reading of tens of thousands of English words was not developed through the use of flashcards, drills or re-reading (“hmm, not quite right … practice reading that again three more times”); none of these skill-based activities create fluent readers.
What does? When beginning English readers decode (i.e., sound out) the word p-o-n-y they already know how it is pronounced and have a clear understanding of its meaning. Early English readers can self-correct, if necessary (“oh, that’s not ‘poony,’ it’s ‘pony!”) and then understand the sentence in which it is embedded. Moreso, native language reading research reports that readers turn new-to-them words on a page into instantly accessible sight words via a self-taught and subconscious process that depends on three factors:
By second grade, a typically developing student who meets the three factors above in her native language needs only 1-4 times of decoding a word to store it in memory as a sight word that can be instantly and accurately identified, even if out of context.
What does this mean for synagogue education? Unfortunately, it suggests that we set the majority of our Hebrew learners up for failure when “fluent and accurate reading of prayers” is a stated goal. New-to-Hebrew students usually have little idea of the pronunciation (never mind the meaning) of the complex Hebrew words in most Jewish prayers and thus cannot self-correct when decoding. The reading research noted above suggests that unknown words cannot become a fluently-read sight word because the learner does not have the foundation to achieve instant recognition. Not surprisingly, a person who only can decode Hebrew – especially at the halting pace of many new learners – cannot read prayers at synagogue-speed.
Yet, we know of young Jews who competently daven. How? These children have stored Hebrew prayers and blessings in memory through multiple exposures to authentic worship. They recite prayers and, if paying attention to the siddur, can match the sounds in their heads to the print on the page. They pray sound-to-print, much like very young children who learned to orally recite entire picture books and then later use known letters to unlock the print on the page. The bonus comes when Hebrew teachers scaffold sound-to-print learning, giving children the foundation to more easily tackle decoding with stronger skills and confidence to self-correct. More so, the originally unfamiliar Hebrew has the possibility of snapping into memory for future access.
Based on what researchers tell us about the factors that enable fluent reading, it is time for synagogue educators to reconsider their learning goals and teaching techniques – we cannot expect our learners to achieve Hebrew reading fluency as they have with English. While the native language reading research does not speak directly to our settings, it suggests that
Bottom line, we must more strongly and intentionally honor the sound-to-print progression of learning to read in one’s native language, while paying attention to our unique circumstances.
It is true that our pre-bar/bat mitzvah Hebrew learners will never have at their disposal the benefits they had prior to learning to read English – a rich environment in which they heard, responded to and spoke the language before introduced to print. For a whole host of reasons, it would be unusual for our learners to reach the level of fluent Hebrew reading that they have achieved with English – i.e., instant and accurate recognition of a word out of context. To suggest that our students can become fluent Hebrew readers sets them, their teachers, parents and the system up for frustration, even failure.
But in the time we have, can we help learners become competent and confident with synagogue Hebrew? Absolutely! By attending to research, rather than our kishkes, we can shift Hebrew learning in our part-time/synagogue settings to more closely honor what the experts tell us. When we do that, it doesn’t have to be hard!
Want to know more? Join the conversation with #OnwardHebrew, an initiative that champions better Hebrew learning for students in part-time/synagogue settings.
Want more details about the reading research and its application with Hebrew learning? View this webinar segment and then check out some compelling articles.
#OnwardHebrew! Join the conversation!
To access the article in its original, click here.
by, Nachama Skolnik Moskowitz
Lots of links below! Click on the underlined words and phrases!
We live in a time when decades old assumptions about Hebrew and Jewish learning in synagogue/part-time settings are being turned on their head. The time devoted to formal learning has been decreasing and many alternative models have moved from “pilots” to “givens.” As noted in a number of recent articles, #OnwardHebrew is transforming Hebrew learning in part-time/synagogue settings across North America – introducing aural Hebrew language via Hebrew Through Movement, Jewish Life Vocabulary, and regular t’fillot, before teaching Hebrew decoding/reading in the year or two prior to Bar/Bat Mitzvah.
There is no doubt that children can learn the Hebrew phonetic system in second or third grade; they have been doing it for decades. However, for too many young students, frustration starts mounting in the year immediately following the introduction of the letters and vowel signs, not because the children are not smart enough and not because their brains can’t figure out phonics in a system that uses different symbols. They face three key challenges: decreased time, lack of foundational knowledge and diminished motivation.
DECREASED TIME: Over the last 10-15 years, the days and hours per week for Hebrew learning has decreased in part-time/congregational programs across North America. There is no doubt that this structural change demands a rethinking of Hebrew goals, learning assumptions and approaches. From just the standpoint of time, it does not seem realistic to ask our students to achieve the same goals as earlier generations who had many more hours per week and year. In our part-time settings, we simply do not have time to teach communicative language, nor writing, nor reading for meaning. On the other hand, we can offer rich and engaging Hebrew learning opportunities.
LACK OF FOUNDATIONAL KNOWLEDGE: Early English readers who confront the printed word “cat” will sound it out “c-at” and realize that they have heard the word many times before, can pronounce it accurately and know what it means. It is a lightbulb moment! On the other hand, children learning to decode Hebrew who confront the printed word בִּמְרוֹמָיו can get stuck (“Bimmm... wait, is that third letter a D sound or an R? Is that an ‘oh’ in the middle, or is that an ‘oh’ at the end?”). Thus, #OnwardHebrew’s push to delay decoding is to offer years during which students can build foundational knowledge, i.e., aural/oral repertoire of Hebrew prayers, blessings and general vocabulary. The word בִּמְרוֹמָיו, when found in context of עוֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם (oseh shalom) becomes an easy sound-to-print progression just like the word “cat” was all those years ago. The student recognizes the phrase/word from having participated in many worship experiences and can pronounce it accurately. If students were lucky enough to learn the meaning of Oseh Shalom’s key words via Hebrew Through Movement, they will also have a context for understanding its meaning.
DIMINISHED MOTIVATION: An eight year old is often excited to enter the “club” of those who learn to read Hebrew. However, years of “the same, the same” – even with great textbooks and creative teachers – can wear down the early excitement, creating diminished motivation. On the other hand, students who are a year away from their Bar or Bat Mitzvah bring a maturity for the learning process and stronger motivation for achieving performance goals. In a one-on-one setting, they can learn to decode/read Hebrew letters and vowel signs in 12-15 hours, followed by the normative number of meetings his/her synagogue requires with a B’Mitzvah tutor. So, rather than spending years of Hebrew and prayer rote practice, #OnwardHebrew’s compacted approach for learning Hebrew builds foundational knowledge while suddenly opening up time for more compelling Jewish learning. In an era where Jewish educators talk about Jewish learning for “thriving” and “meaning-making,” transforming the Hebrew learning approach has the potential to benefit the entire Jewish educational enterprise.
A few words of advice from those who have been down this path:
JOIN THE CONVERSATION: Learn as much as you can by grabbing a cup of coffee (or ice cream!) and then spending an hour or so on the #OnwardHebrew site, clicking on articles and videos. Join the #OnwardHebrew Facebook group, paying attention to the postings; feel free to ask questions or offer your own comments.
EXPAND THE CONVERSATION: Stir #OnwardHebrew conversations among stakeholders – clergy, teachers, committee and board members – by sharing and discussing the articles and videos you feel would resonate.
PICK SOME LOW HANGING FRUIT: With your stakeholders, decide if you are ready to pilot one or more of the #OnwardHebrew elements – Hebrew Through Movement (make sure your teacher(s) sign up for the online seminar!) Jewish Life Vocabulary (LOTS of resources here – keep clicking around!) and Hebrew t’fillot. Each of these easily complements any of your other current Hebrew learning goals, curriculum or textbooks. Keep in mind that there is potential crossover between these elements. For example you can anchor JLV in the Hebrew alef-bet, introducing one letter a week and teaching two to three Hebrew words that start with it. Thus, a child in your program from first grade onwards would have had six years of seeing most of the letters prior to learning to decode. OR, integrate Hebrew sight words into your Hebrew Through Movement lessons (the picture on at the bottom of this blogpost is from an HTM lesson on Sh’ma). Taken together, #OnwardHebrew’s low hanging fruit are examples of rich Hebrew learning, even without the introduction of decoding until children have gained years of Hebrew vocabulary.
CONSIDER WHEN TO TEACH DECODING: Do not rush this decision - it takes open conversation with stakeholders (clergy, parents and teachers), as well as the implementation of some experiments or pilots. For example, consider experimenting with “Let’s Learn Hebrew Side-by-Side” for any children who enter your program in fifth or sixth grade not having yet learned to decode/read Hebrew. Or, exchange traditional letter recognition learning in K, 1 and 2, with Hebrew Through Movement. Or, follow the lead of some educational programs that remove decoding from second and third grade with a target grade of where they will introduce it later (e.g., fifth grade), but keep open the possibility of changing that time of introduction. And be sure to evaluate the process and results when done!
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Kol hakavod for considering the question! Stay in touch with the #OnwardHebrew if you need help! The "Contact Form" is a great way to connect in. Want to share this post? A PDF of this posting is below.
#OnwardHebrew is disrupting not only Hebrew learning in part-time/congregational settings, but beginning to have major impact on Jewish learning, as well. Check out this blog post from the Jewish Federations of North Americal webpage by Nachama Skolnik Moskowitz
In early January 2019, results from the recent #OnwardHebrew survey were published (click here for the full report and click here for the executive summary).
The "enthusiastic-for-#OnwardHebrew" written comments were numerous, including these:
Not surprisingly, the survey results showed that the most difficult #OnwardHebrew element is changing the timing that Hebrew decoding is taught, i.e., first building an aural/oral foundation before introducing the reading/decoding process. One respondent noted, "“[Our stakeholders] are supportive of HTM, Hebrew vocabulary and Hebrew in Tefillah, but not of delaying decoding.”
The education directors and clergy who first brought #OnwardHebrew to life explain that key to successful adoption and implementation are slow and careful study/deliberations with stakeholders (clergy, teachers, committee/board members, parents, etc.) AND attention to the change process. Once others understand the theory and research behind #OnwardHebrew, the early innovators suggest that their colleagues:
I would add that the rest of us would be enriched by YOUR success stories, as well as your challenges. We will be able to build upon your experiences.
#OnwardHebrew! Join the conversation...
Recently, I’ve been thinking about Gutenberg’s printing press and its harsh impact on Hebrew School. And indeed, initial drafts of this blog post began as a tirade against Gutenberg, blaming him for the struggles of many a child in Hebrew School. For if he hadn’t invented the ability to print prayerbooks in mass quantities, then worshipers wouldn’t have books in their hands, and Jewish children would not have to struggle with learning to decode Hebrew over four to six years in the learning environment known as “Hebrew School.”
Yikes! It got a little complicated as I realized I couldn’t blame Gutenberg alone – the Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution and a host of other factors could also be implicated in the path to creating the current model of Hebrew learning in part-time/congregational settings.
But here’s the point – two thousand years ago, Jewish prayers were shared orally, not slogged through by those learning to decode Hebrew. In the days of scribes and scrolls, an inspirational person who understood the structure of traditional worship led the community in a strong, clear voice. The people could and would do any number of things: listen, recite along with the worship leader, repeat lines or simply say amen. Prayer was an outpouring of the heart that transcended the printed page … oh, wait, there was no printed page at that time! The first written prayerbook was a letter sent by one rabbi to the community of Barcelona in the 9th century CE, and it was not until the mid-15th century that Gutenberg’s printing press made it possible to more easily duplicate copies of books.
BUT, over the last few decades, we as Jewish educators have twisted ourselves into tight knots teaching our students what we assume is the one and only way to pray – book in hand, eyes following the print on the page, and using skills of decoding to stay up with the service. And how do we know (hmm, test) that students can participate comfortable in Hebrew worship? Often prior to b’nai mitzvah tutoring, someone checks their reading fluency by handing them a piece of Hebrew text that they have never seen before and asking them to read aloud. Many children struggle, some cry.
Most of us learned to read as a young child because over five to six years of listening and eventually talking, we built an incredibly large vocabulary and kishke-understanding of English’s structure. A child who sounds out c-a-t often has a light bulb moment – “Oh wait, I know that word! Cat!!” But children who are asked to sound out Hebrew prayer words they don’t know and may never understand because of adult-complexity and prosaic structure (like בְּמִשְׁמְרוֹתֵיהֶם) are caught like deer in the headlights. The “I-know-that-word!”-light-bulb-moment never comes.
#OnwardHebrew suggests that we go back to our roots, introducing new learners to Jewish prayer orally, without concern that they have memorized the text (oh my!) before being able to relate to the printed page. Competent and confident pray-ers are not defined by “decoding to synagogue speed with two or fewer mistakes.” In fact, it’s rather impossible to decode to synagogue speed; one HAS to have the prayers and blessings in one’s head and heart (a softer way to describe “memorize”) to stay up with the service.
Besides emphasizing the singing or reciting of Hebrew prayers and blessings in t’fillah (worship), #OnwardHebrew also suggests spending years of building the sounds of Hebrew language in the hearts of our learners in other ways – Hebrew Through Movement (a fun, kinesthetic way to learn key vocabulary of holidays, prayers and blessings) and Jewish Life Vocabulary (Hebrew words that are integrated into English sentences – “What a sneeze! Labri-ut!” or “Grab your siddur, we are going to t’fillah”). Children closer to the age of bar/bat mitzvah who have richly built the sounds of Hebrew can quickly and easily learn the Alef-Bet (12-15 hours) and then match this new skill with the words and phrases now gloriously floating in their heads (oh, yes, and hearts).
While I’ve moved on from blaming Gutenberg, I yearn for a return to the days of scribes, scrolls and the aural/oral learning and transmission of prayers and blessings. I challenge us as Jewish educators to release ourselves from the decades old (not millennia old) tradition of teaching in which our students often painfully decode prayers and blessings, syllable-by-syllable, word-by-word. No, I am not suggesting that we skip teaching Hebrew decoding/reading altogether. But for the sake of our young learners, I am pushing us to become more savvy about the process and more efficient with our time.
If we can affect this change in our curriculum, releasing our students from years of frustrating work with pre-primers, primers, prayers and blessings, then amazingly we will have more time for engaging, meaningful and compelling Jewish learning ... which is what the Jewish educational enterprise should be about!
#OnwardHebrew!! Join the conversation here (comments are welcome, below) and on Facebook!
Kol tuv ("all the best") <<just a little Jewish Life Vocabulary thrown in!
Nachama Skolnik Moskowitz,
Director of Curriculum Resources
Jewish Education Center of Cleveland
We are excited to share supports for the integration of Jewish Life Vocabulary, offering you avenues for introducing your community to Hebrew words and phrases by infusing them into English sentences ("What an interesting argument! I'd say eilu v'eilu - it's both this and that!"). On our JLV webpages you'll find:
Note that documents have been offered both as PDFs (so that the formatting and Hebrew font "holds") and in Word so that you may edit the lists as desired, adding or subtracting vocabulary that better fits your community.
Do you have unique ideas for integrating JLV into your educational program? Please share with the rest of us - either via the contact form on the homepage of this website OR by creating a post in the Facebook group. Questions, comments and corrections are welcome, too!
Two related articles were posted recently to the #OnwardHebrew Facebook group, both supporting the sound-to-print approach, but using examples from the non-Jewish world.
Julia Unger Zorn noted that the Suzuki method of learning violin is also sound-to-print. Students hear music and play music before learning to read musical notes. The article she shared is here: https://suzukiassociation.org/about/suzuki-method/
Rabbi Stacy Rigler offered an article that encourages educators to wait for student readiness, rather than rushing the teaching of reading (and other subjects) at too early of an age. That article is here: https://www.edutopia.org/article/teach-kids-when-theyre-ready and a segment of Stacy's workshop presentation ("why delay decoding") is here: https://youtu.be/UmIFO2CAFwY
Both articles offer language for us to offer parents when entering into conversations about a developmentally appropriate time to teach decoding. General comments/feedback is welcome, as well as experiences (successful or not) you've had when discussing delaying decoding with your families.
This website (and postings on Facebook) offers multiple invitations to "join the conversation." We don't want you to "jump on the bandwagon," play "follow the leader," or "go where no one has gone before." Rather, #OnwardHebrew invites you to enter into dialog about the current approach to Hebrew learning that has dominated part-time/congregational learning for decades.
In some ways, each of the education directors who adopted new approaches to Hebrew education, began as anthropologists. They carefully observed their current programs - noting behaviors of students and teachers, interpreting conversations ("what did I hear and what do I think it means?"), and considering the larger social sphere in which their congregation was situated. To their credit, they did not do all this in a vacuum. Rather, they connected with each other to share observations, debate conclusions and consider potential next steps. As a result, each program is different, but because of their thoughtful interactions, new assumptions about Hebrew education began to emerge, resulting in a spark to Hebrew learning not seen in the recent past.
This is the power of conversation! It's not about me alone and it's not about you alone. But my sharing and your sharing will help us all develop learners that are exited about Hebrew, and grow in their competence and confidence.
#OnwardHebrew. Join the conversation ... with your staff, with local and national colleagues, on this blog, and on Facebook.
Really. Let's talk!
All of us! If you have something to contribute, send your posting via the Contact webpage!